Heart Failure

Heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure, is a condition where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's demands. It can affect either the right or left side of the heart, or both, and can be chronic or acute. Heart failure is a serious condition and can be life-threatening if left untreated. 

Heart failure is classified into two types: 

  • Systolic heart failure: The left ventricle of the heart becomes weakened and can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. 


  • Diastolic heart failure: The left ventricle of the heart becomes stiff and can't fill with blood properly, leading to a decreased amount of blood being pumped out. 


Heart failure can be caused by a variety of factors, including: 

  • Coronary artery disease 
  • High blood pressure 
  • Diabetes 
  • Valve disease 
  • Cardiomyopathy 
  • Congenital heart defects 
  • Infections 
  • Alcohol or drug abuse 
  • Obesity 


Heart failure is typically classified into four stages, ranging from mild to severe. The stages are based on the symptoms experienced by the patient, as well as the functional capacity of the heart. 


The diagnosis of heart failure is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests, such as blood tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and stress tests. 


Treatment of heart failure depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Common treatments include lifestyle changes, medication, and surgical interventions. Lifestyle changes may include dietary modifications, exercise, and weight management. Medications may include diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Surgical interventions may include heart valve repair or replacement, pacemaker implantation, and heart transplant.